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Cummins ISX11.9 CM2250 – Service Manual 018-026   Diesel Exhaust Fluid Recommendations and Specifications

General Information

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 WARNING 

It is unlawful to tamper with or remove any component of the aftertreatment system. It is also unlawful to use a Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) that does not meet the specifications provided or to operate the vehicle/equipment with no Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF).
 WARNING 

Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) contains urea. Do not get the substance in your eyes. In case of contact, immediately flush eyes with large amounts of water for a minimum of 15 minutes. Do not swallow internally. In the event the diesel exhaust fluid is ingested, contact a physician immediately. Reference the Materials Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for additional information.
 CAUTION 

Never attempt to create Diesel Exhaust Fluid by mixing agricultural grade urea with water. Agricultural grade urea does not meet the necessary specifications required and the aftertreatment system may be damaged.

Cummins Inc. requires the use of Diesel Exhaust Fluid meeting ISO 22241-1. There is NO acceptable substitute.

NOTE: Some locations may reference the DIN 70070 standard. Diesel Exhaust Fluid specification limits of this standard are identical to ISO 22241-1.

Cummins Inc. is not responsible for failures or damage resulting from what Cummins Inc. determines to be abuse or neglect, including but not limited to: operation without correctly specified Diesel Exhaust Fluid; lack of maintenance of aftertreatment; improper storage, or shutdown practices; unauthorized modifications of the engine and aftertreatment. Cummins is also not responsible for failures caused by incorrect Diesel Exhaust Fluid or by water, dirt or other contaminants in the Diesel Exhaust Fluid

For further details and discussion of Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) for Cummins® engines. Refer to the Diesel Exhaust Fluid Specifications for Cummins® Selective Catalytic Reduction Systems, Service Bulletin Number 4021566.


For engines using SCR operating in the United States and Canada, it is also strongly recommended that the Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) used be certified by the American Petroleum Institute (API). This would be indicated by a symbol on the container/dispensing system as shown.

 
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To ensure the correct Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) is used, Cummins Inc. recommends the use of Fleetguard® Diesel Exhaust Fluid. Fleetguard® carries different quantity options from small to bulk containers.

For customers located in the United States and Canada, for assistance locating Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF), contact the Cummins Customer Assistance Center: 1-800 DIESELS (1-800-343-7357).

For customers outside of the United States and Canada, contact you local Cummins authorized repair location for assistance in locating Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF).

 
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The following are other common names used for Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF):

  • Urea
  • AUS 32 (Aqueous Urea Solution 32)
  • AdBlue
  • NOx Reduction Agent
  • Catalyst Solution
  • DEF

Regardless of what the Diesel Exhaust Fluid is called, the Diesel Exhaust Fluid must meet the specifications as outlined in the General Information section of this procedure.

Storage

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NOTE: The following information is for reference and is to be used as a guideline only. There are many factors that determine Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) shelf life, with temperature and duration being two of the major determining contributors. If in doubt, check the concentration of the Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF), refer to the Test step of this procedure, or replace the fluid with known quality Diesel Exhaust Fluid.

Diesel Exhaust Fluid has a limited shelf life, both in the vehicle’s diesel exhaust fluid tank and in storage/bulk/transportation containers.

The following conditions are ideal for maintaining DEF quality and shelf life during prolonged transportation and storage:

  • Storage temperature between 23°F and 77°F (-5°C and 25°C)
  • Store in sealed containers to avoid contamination
  • Avoid direct sunlight

In these conditions, DEF has a minimum expected shelf life of 18 months. If stored at higher temperatures for extended periods of time, the shelf life will be reduced by approximately 6 months for every 5°C [9°F] above the highest storage temperature listed above.

Long term storage in a vehicle (in excess of 6 months) is not recommended. If long term storage is necessary, periodic testing of the Diesel Exhaust Fluid is recommended to be performed to ensure the concentration does not fall out of specification. Follow the Test step of this procedure.

NOTE: To assist in preventing Diesel Exhaust Fluid from deteriorating when stored in the vehicles DEF tank, locate and plug the tanks venting to seal the tank exposure to the atmosphere.

Handling

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Diesel Exhaust Fluid is not harmful to handle, but can be corrosive to certain materials over time. Such as carbon steels, iron, zinc, nickel, copper, aluminum and magnesium.

  • Make sure to only use approved containers to transport and store Diesel Exhaust Fluid. Containers made of polyethylene and polypropylene are recommended.
  • If Diesel Exhaust Fluid is spilled, rinse and clean immediately with water.
  • Avoid prolonged contact with skin. In case of contact, wash with immediately with soap and water. If not washed immediately, when the diesel exhaust fluid dries, a white film will be left that can be more difficult to wash off.

NOTE: Spilled Diesel Exhaust Fluid if left to dry or wiped away with a cloth only will leave a white residue. Failure to clean the spilled Diesel Exhaust Fluid may result in an incorrectly diagnosed leak of the Diesel Exhaust Fluid Dosing system.

Before using containers, funnels, etc. that will be used to dispense, handle or store Diesel Exhaust Fluid, make sure to wash thoroughly to remove any contaminants and then rinse with distilled water.

NOTE: Do not use tap water to rinse components that will be used to deliver diesel exhaust fluid. Tap water will contaminate the Diesel Exhaust Fluid. If distilled water is not available, rinse with tap water and then rinse with Diesel Exhaust Fluid.

Disposal

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If disposing of Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF), always check with the local authority regulations on proper disposing process and requirements.

Test

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Having the correct concentration of Diesel Exhaust Fluid is critical to the engine and aftertreatment system performing correctly.

To test the concentration of the Diesel Exhaust Fluid, use the Cummins Diesel Exhaust Fluid Refractometer, service tool part number 4919554. Follow the instructions provided with the service tool.

Percent Urea Concentration: 32.5 +/- 1.5%

The specification listed above takes into consideration the refractometer tool tolerances, varibility, and calibration when measuring Diesel Exhaust Fluid concentration.

If the Diesel Exhaust Fluid concentration is found to be outside of this specification, drain the Diesel Exhaust Fluid tank, flush with distilled water and fill with new and/or known good Diesel Exhaust Fluid. Recheck the Diesel Exhaust Fluid concentration.

Concentration of the Diesel Exhaust Fluid should be checked when:

  • The vehicle has been stored for an extended period of time.
  • It is suspected that water has been added to the Diesel Exhaust Fluid tank
 
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Contamination/Incorrect Fluid

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 CAUTION 

Never add water or any other fluid besides what is specified to the Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) tank. The aftertreatment system may be damaged.

In the event that the incorrect fluid is added to the Diesel Exhaust Fluid tank, such as, but not limited to:

  • Water
  • Diesel Fuel
  • Hydraulic Fluid
  • Coolant
  • Windshield Washer Fluid

Contact a local Cummins Authorized Repair location to determine the appropriate repair direction.

If only water has been added to the Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) tank, drain the Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) tank, flush with distilled water and refill with new and/or known good Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF). Check the Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) concentration after completing the refill, follow to the Test step of this procedure.

Freezing

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 CAUTION 

Do NOT add any chemicals/additives to the Diesel Exhaust Fluid in an effort to prevent freezing. If chemicals/additives are added to the Diesel Exhaust Fluid, the aftertreatment system may be damaged.

Diesel Exhaust Fluid will freeze around -11°C [12°F]. The diesel exhaust fluid system on the vehicle is designed to accommodate this and does not require any intervention by the vehicle operator.

The Operating the Engine (101-015) procedure in Section 1 of the Owners and Operation and Maintenance Manual will provide information on proper cold weather set up for your engine/vehicle.

Last Modified:  01-Jul-2010